08 Jul Christianity vs. The Alternatives
Some think we have never been a Christian nation. They cite the founding father’s as their reasoning. Having done some work in this area I would have to argue differently. We were founded on Christian principles right out of the Holy Bible. Check out the evidence yourself and see what you think.
Those who believe we have never been a Christian nation speak of Thomas Jefferson, for instance, who made his own Bible out of the Holy one by picking and choosing what he thought it should say and believing that is what it did say! Sound familiar? So don’t feel like the lone ranger if that is what you are doing! You are in good company! They mention others as well who had a conflicting opinion about the Bible and about Christianity which, based upon my own research, is true. Many even had a negative view of protestant Christians (better known today as evangelicals). But what about those founding fathers who may have challenged parts of the Bible but who did believe the Bible as the guide to life? And what about the ones who truly did believe Jesus was who He said He was in the Bible? At least the foundation for their disbelief was Christianity. In other words they still considered themselves to be Christians as they disputed Christianity (and without totally discarding the Bible). Perhaps talking about Iran or Iraq or another Muslim country will help clarify my point.
Do you honestly think there are a good number of Muslims in the upper ranks of Iran who are sworn in by putting their hand on the Christian Bible and then saying “so help me God” at the end of their oath like all of our Presidents have done since George Washington? Is it even optional?! Furthermore, are there any leaders of Muslim nations who believe Jesus was the Son of God? No – there are none (although I have not taken a survey)! Muslim nations are Muslim. So they may have a controversial view of the Koran, but it is still the Koran rather than the Christian Bible. Why? Because they are a Muslim nation! Although I am going to discuss the founding fathers faith, it is still debatable what they actually believed (like many of us, our faith is not always as easily understood by what we say), but they considered themselves to be Christian and considered the United States to be based upon fundamental Christian values. As for the dispute over Jesus, He was crucified because of His claims and Christianity has always been controversial, and always will be. No other respected man said he was the Son of God. So the fact that our leaders had different views about Jesus is not surprising. But again, we sure aren’t debating the Koran, Muhammad, or another religious document – we are always talking about the Bible. That is the distortion I notice with those who dispute our national heritage that just doesn’t deal with reality. The United States of America was born a Christian nation – that is a fact. Whether we remain one is another story. It may be a shock to consider a Muslim nation putting their hand on the Bible to be sworn in, but there may come a time in the not so distant future when an American President (or elected official) might have the choice (to put their hand on the Bible or Koran). Regardless, read about our founding fathers faith, from a non-biased view (because I am not a brain washed Christian trying to make a point by twisting the truth), and see if you can understand that irrespective of their total understanding of the message I am writing about, they still considered themselves to be Christians and the Bible was the basis for the foundation of our great country. You should also know that some of these quotes are contested (by Snopes.com which researches issues like this to keep us honest). I have marked them as such without knowing whether they are accurate or not. Regardless, when you consider all of the facts listed, it might seem irrelevant which ones were or were not actually said by these men, once you see that these men founded our country on the Bible, regardless of whether we can go back in history and find all of these quotes in their historical documents.
Thomas Jefferson – Atheist?
I am going to start with one of the most controversial founding father figures, Thomas Jefferson, first Secretary of State, second Vice President, the third President of the United States (1801-1809) and the founder of the University of Virginia. He was also the primary author of the Declaration of Independence (1776). As previously mentioned, he is known as the President who cut up the Bible (particularly the miracles of the Gospels, including the virgin birth and the resurrection) and created his own Bible (or book) called “The Philosophy of Jesus” which is said to have been completed in 1820 but re-named, “Life and Morals of Jesus of Nazareth” upon completion. Some say he originally created this document for his own purposes while others argue he wrote it as a simplified version of the Bible (more understandable) to evangelize the Christian faith to Indians. I am not sure it is worth the time to decipher what Thomas Jefferson actually meant by the various things he did or said but I think it is a bit easier to explain than many scholars think. For instance, evidently he advised his nephew in 1787, “Fix reason firmly in her seat, and call to her tribunal every fact, every opinion. Question with boldness even the existence of a god.” He could have meant anything by this quote. I am a deeply devoted Christian and could find a reason to say this to someone I care about, depending on the circumstances. It doesn’t tell his entire story is my point. Many people think Christians just accept everything on faith, but we don’t (or I don’t). I questioned everything believing if Christianity were true, it could withstand my own doubts. There is nothing wrong with questioning God. Look at another quote by Thomas Jefferson to see if you can understand what I mean.
Thomas Jefferson, Christian?
In 1803 he is said to have written to Benjamin Rush, a physician, “To the corruptions of Christianity, I am indeed opposed; but not to the genuine precepts of Jesus himself. I am a Christian, in the only sense in which he wished any one to be; sincerely attached to his doctrines, in preference to all others; ascribing to himself every human excellence, and believing he never claimed any other.” Now this does raise concern about his belief that Jesus was the Son of God. But it sure sounds like the teachings of Jesus guided his life. That means the Bible was relevant to him, deeply relevant, despite his lack of understanding of its bottom line. Furthermore, it is said that he believed the “dark” races were inferior to the “white.” That is not biblical! But regardless, for those thinking that because he (or other founding fathers) questioned aspects of the Bible proves that we were not “Christian” is like doing a study of the Kings of the Old Testament (the first half of the Holy Bible) and declaring truth of the faith of Israel based upon how well those Kings understood or believed the Torah (or the prophets sent to them). Of all the Kings of the Old Testament, there were only a handful of faithful ones. Furthermore, remember the story of David and Goliath? In that Biblical account it was not King Saul who showed courage and got in the ring with Goliath (believing in his own people’s God), it was young David (a nobody, but still an Israelite Jew)! But regardless of their own faith, loyalty, or allegiance to God, the Kings were still Israelite Kings! And they knew they were Jewish! I will get to this in later chapters, but God remains sovereign despite our leaders. I am not trying to make saints out of our founding fathers, just prove they considered themselves Christians – biblical ones.
Another one of our founding fathers was Benjamin Franklin – a scientist, inventor, philosopher, politician, and diplomat. He too questioned the divinity of Jesus but he did not completely miss Jesus either. Although I too get confused at how anyone can believe parts of the Bible without believing all of it, and how illogical that becomes for a culture (if everyone picks and chooses what to believe then all of it is rendered relative), that is apparently what Benjamin Franklin did, just like Thomas Jefferson. Despite that fact the following quote is attributed to Benjamin Franklin during the Constitutional Convention on June 28, 1787,
“ … In the beginning of the contest with G. Britain, when we were sensible of danger we had daily prayer in this room for the Divine Protection. — Our prayers, Sir, were heard, and they were graciously answered. All of us who were engaged in the struggle must have observed frequent instances of a Superintending providence in our favor. … And have we now forgotten that powerful friend? Or do we imagine that we no longer need His assistance. I have lived, Sir, a long time and the longer I live, the more convincing proofs I see of this truth — that God governs in the affairs of men. And if a sparrow cannot fall to the ground without his notice, is it probable that an empire can rise without his aid? We have been assured, Sir, in the sacred writings that ‘except the Lord build they labor in vain that build it.’ I firmly believe this; and I also believe that without his concurring aid we shall succeed in this political building no better than the Builders of Babel: …I therefore beg leave to move — that henceforth prayers imploring the assistance of Heaven, and its blessings on our deliberations, be held in this Assembly every morning before we proceed to business, and that one or more of the Clergy of this City be requested to officiate in that service.”
The sacred writings he referred to is the Bible, so is his reference to a sparrow falling to the ground without notice (“Are not two sparrows sold for a penny? Yet not one of them will fall to the ground apart from the will of your Father” Matthew 10:29). Obviously he read and knew what the Bible said and he was asking for prayer! Franklin is also reported to have supported George Whitefield the leader of the “First Great Awakening,” an evangelical movement in the colonies in the mid-1700’s where many people were converted to Christianity. He may not have bought into the theology of Whitefield, but he helped him with the movement! Finally, in 1790, Benjamin Franklin is said to have written a letter to Ezra Stiles, the president of Yale University just before he died. Evidently Mr. Stiles had asked him his views on Christianity. This is what he wrote,
“As to Jesus of Nazareth, my Opinion of whom you particularly desire, I think the System of Morals and his Religion, as he left them to us, the best the world ever saw or is likely to see; but I apprehend it has received various corrupt changes, and I have, with most of the present Dissenters in England, some Doubts as to his divinity; tho’ it is a question I do not dogmatize upon, having never studied it, and I think it needless to busy myself with it now, when I expect soon an Opportunity of knowing the Truth with less Trouble….”
Maybe Benjamin Franklin did not accept the Divinity of Jesus, but it sure appears he would have said he was a Christian and his morality, his understanding of right and wrong, was biblical. Thinking otherwise appears to miss the man. Furthermore, he admitted that he had “never studied it,” regarding the divinity of Jesus, thus his potential failure to really understand its message.
It is said that George Washington’s religious convictions were somewhat private, at least more so than many others. That would be consistent with the motto he was known for, “deeds not words.” That has a familiar ring to it and many of us understand why, as I have already pointed out. In that regard he provided church buildings, ministers, and chaplains, as spiritual food for his family and the community. Evidently that was his primary form of evangelism although he encouraged missionaries to “Christianize” the “aboriginals.” He spoke of Jesus Christ as “the divine Author of our blessed religion.” One letter used the words, “on my honor and the faith of a Christian” while he also encouraged seekers to learn “the religion of Jesus Christ.” He is also said to have been responsible for the following prayer, written at Newburgh, New York on June 14, 1783 at the end of the Revolutionary War (and circulated to 13 governors of the freed states,
“I now make it my earnest prayer that God would have you, and the State over which you preside, in his holy protection; that he would incline the hearts of the citizens to cultivate a spirit of subordination and obedience to government, to entertain a brotherly affection and love for one another, for their fellow-citizens of the United States at large, and particularly for brethren who have served in the field; and finally that he would most graciously be pleased to dispose us all to do justice, to love mercy, and to demean ourselves with that charity, humility, and pacific temper of mind, which were the characteristics of the Divine Author of our blessed religion, and without an humble imitation of whose example in these things, we can never hope to be a happy nation.”
Furthermore, a book written in 2006 by Dr. Peter Lillback, “George Washington’s Sacred Fire,” which did an in-depth look at Washington’s religious beliefs concluded that Washington was an orthodox Christian (although many still contest his faith regardless of the evidence posed in that book). But remember, regardless of what is contested about his faith, historically George Washington is the reason that every President in the history of the United States of America puts his hand on the Holy Bible and at the end of the oath says, “so help me God.” And then in his case, he kissed the Bible. If George Washington wasn’t a Christian, as many still suggest, then what was he?
John Adams served as the first Vice President of the United States under President George Washington and the second President of the United States from 1797 to 1801. He also helped Thomas Jefferson draft the Declaration of the Independence in 1776 and was known as “the pillar of (the Declaration’s) support on the floor of Congress, its ablest [skilled – my add]advocate and defender against the multifarious [varied, diverse – my add] assaults it encountered” by Jefferson himself. Thus his name is included as one of the founding fathers. He is also quoted as saying, “The highest story of the American Revolution is this: it connected in one indissoluble bond the principles of civil government with the principles of Christianity.” In a speech in 1776 he is also known to have said.
“It may be the will of Heaven that America shall suffer calamities still more wasting and distresses yet more dreadful. If this is to be the case, it will have a good effect at least. It will inspire us with many virtues, which we have not, and correct many errors, follies and vices … in States as well as individuals. And the new governments we are assuming … will require purification from our vices, and an augmentation of our virtues or there will be no blessings. … But I must submit all my hopes and fears to an overruling Providence; in which, unfashionable as the faith may be, I firmly believe.”
And, although he is also noted to reject the divinity of Christ (although that is what is said about him rather than anyone having any proof), he is supposed to have condemned his political opponent Thomas Paine’s views of Christianity in 1796 when Adams said,
“The Christian religion is, above all the religions that ever prevailed or existed in ancient or modern times, the religion of wisdom, virtue, equity and humanity, let the Blackguard Paine say what he will.”
John Jay & James Madison
If you are like me, John Jay may not have been on your personal list of known founding fathers of the United States. But he is on the lists of historians because of the role he played in the formation of our country. I learned that he was President of the Continental Congress from 1778 to 1779 and, was the first Chief Justice from 1789 to 1795. I won’t spend too much time on Mr. Jay but here is a quote that he is to have written to a House of Representatives member from Pennsylvania, John Murray in 1816. He wrote,
“Providence has given to our people the choice of their rulers, and it is the duty, as well as the privilege and interest, of our Christian nation to select and prefer Christians for their rulers.”
Point made. James Madison was the fourth President of the United States (1809-1817) and considered one of the Founding Fathers as well. Besides his presidency, he is best known as the primary author of the United States Constitution and considered the Father of the Bill of Rights. He was also responsible for the organization of the federal government as leader of the House of Representatives under George Washington. It is said that Madison told his friend William Bradford (who served as Attorney General under President Washington), that all leaders, like themselves, should declare their faith in Christ (this quotes accuracy has been contested),
“I have sometimes thought there could not be a stronger testimony in favor of religion or against temporal enjoyments, even the most rational and manly, than for men who occupy the most honorable and gainful departments and [who] are rising in reputation and wealth, publicly to declare their unsatisfactoriness by becoming fervent advocates in the cause of Christ; and I wish you may give in your evidence in this way.”
Alexander Hamilton & John Hancock
The first Secretary of the Treasury (and founder of the US Mint), Alexander Hamilton, was also considered a Founding Father, as he was the personal secretary (assistant) to George Washington from 1777-1781. Not only did he fight in the Revolutionary War he was also a huge proponent of the Constitution who helped write the Federalist Papers (papers to get ratification of the Constitution from New York) along with John Jay and James Madison. As a member of the Continental Congress he formed the Christian Constitutional Society that had, as one of its tenets, “support of the Christian religion.” This letter to the co-founder of the society, James Bayard, in 1802 reads as follows,
“I now offer you the outline of the plan they have suggested. Let an association be formed to be denominated ‘The Christian Constitutional Society,’ its object to be first: The support of the Christian religion. Second: The support of the United States. I have carefully examined the evidences of the Christian religion, and if I was sitting as a juror upon its authenticity I would unhesitatingly give my verdict in its favor. I can prove its truth as clearly as any proposition ever submitted to the mind of man.”
John Hancock is the last founding father I will mention. A wealthy and influential colonist, Hancock used his wealth to support the cause of the colonies, which gained him popularity and triggered his political career as a protégé of Samuel Adams (who really helped lead the movement that led to the Revolutionary War). A series of events led him to become president of the Second Continental Congress as well, which established the Continental Army, coordinated the Revolutionary war effort (since it was underway), and issued the Declaration of Independence in July 1776. He was the first man to sign the Declaration of Independence and his signature was so prominent that even today we ask folks to give us their “John Hancock” when they sign documents. He was responsible for designing a new government in the Articles of Confederation that were ratified in 1781. Hancock was also the first Governor (and third) of Massachusetts which influence he used to ensure Massachusetts ratified the United States Constitution in 1788. John Hancock was known as a strong advocate for Christianity and firm believer in Jesus Christ as the Savior of the world. He and other leaders are also have said to have called for a day of “fasting, humiliation and prayer, with a total abstinence from labor and recreation” on April 15, 1775.
Abraham Lincoln & The US Supreme Court
The following quotes are also worth mentioning since they so clearly shed light on the faith of other great Americans. These are from Abraham Lincoln, our 16th President, “In regards to this great Book [the Bible], I have but to say it is the best gift God has given to man. All the good the Savior gave to the world was communicated through this Book. But for it we could not know right from wrong. All things most desirable for man’s welfare, here and hereafter, are found portrayed in it.”
“I invite the people of the United states (on Aug 6)… to invoke the influence of His Holy Spirit… to guide the counsels of the government with wisdom adequate to so great a national emergency, and to visit with tender care and consolation throughout the length and breadth of our land all those who, through the vicissitudes of marches, voyages, battles, and sieges have been brought to suffer in mind, body, or estate, and finally to lead the whole nation through the paths of repentance and submission to the Divine will back to the perfect enjoyment of union and internal peace.” [July 15, 1863]
“And whereas it is the duty of nations as well as of men, to own their dependence upon the overruling power of God … and to recognize the sublime truth, announced in the Holy Scriptures and proven by all history, that those nations only are blessed whose God is the Lord.”
Moreover, the US Supreme Court decided the matter as well as it said in 1892 in a decision between the US Supreme Court and the Church of the Holy Trinity that, “This is a Christian nation.”
First Congressional Prayer
The following is said to be the text from the first congressional prayer that makes a convincing argument on our nations religious foundation. I will allow the text to speak for itself,
“O LORD, OUR HEAVENLY FATHER, high and mighty King of Kings, and Lord of Lords, who dost from Thy throne behold all the dwellers on earth, and reigns with power supreme and uncontrolled over all the kingdoms, empires and governments; look down in mercy we beseech Thee, on these American States, who have fled to Thee from the rod of the oppressor, and thrown themselves on Thy gracious protection, desiring henceforth to be dependent only on Thee; to Thee they have appealed for the righteousness of their cause; to Thee do they now look up for that countenance and support which Thou alone canst give; take them, therefore, Heavenly Father, under Thy nurturing care; give them wisdom in council and valor in the field; defeat the malicious design of our cruel adversaries; convince them of the unrighteousness of their cause; and if they persist in their sanguinary purpose, O let the voice of Thy own unerring justice, sounding in their hearts, constrain them to drop the weapons of war from their unnerved hands in the day of battle! Be Thou present, O God of wisdom, and direct the counsels of this honorable assembly; enable them to settle things on the best and surest foundation, that the scene of blood may be speedily closed, that order, harmony and peace may be effectually restored, and truth and justice, religion and piety prevail and flourish among Thy people. Preserve the health of their bodies and vigor of their minds; shower down on them, and the millions they here represent, such temporal blessings as Thou seest expedient for them in this world, and crown them with everlasting glory in the world to come. All this we ask in the name and through the merits of Jesus Christ, Thy Son, Our Savior. Amen.” First Prayer in Congress September 7, 1774, Jacob Duche, Carpenters Hall, Philadelphia.
We Have Always Been A Christian Nation
So as not to leave out contemporary Presidents, even Ronald Reagan is said to have made it clear that the Christian Bible has shaped our nation from its inception as he said, “Of the many influences that have shaped the United States into a distinctive nation and people, none may be said to be more fundamental and enduring than the Bible.” Ronald Regan
“Many of our greatest national leaders — among them Presidents Washington, Jackson, Lincoln, and Wilson — have recognized the influence of the Bible on our country’s development. The plainspoken Andrew Jackson referred to the Bible as no less than ‘the rock on which our Republic rests.’ Today our beloved America and, indeed, the world, is facing a decade of enormous challenge. As a people we may well be tested as we have seldom, if ever, been tested before. We will need resources of spirit even more than resources of technology, education, and armaments. There could be no more fitting moment than now to reflect with gratitude, humility, and urgency upon the wisdom revealed to us in the writing that Abraham Lincoln called ‘the best gift God has ever given to man . . . But for it we could not know right from wrong.’”’ Ronald Reagan
I am going to end with a few comments about our educational institutions, national songs and the pilgrims that might solidify the matter if it has not already been settled. Having studied the history of the educational institutions in America myself, it appears the majority of them (all but two of the first 108 universities founded in America) had religious roots with the Christian world view, more than any other thought, dominating American intellectual life and education during the entire colonial period – from the founding of Virginia in 1607, down to the break of the colonies with England in the 1770’s. Harvard was our first college, founded in 1636 with a goal,
“Let every student be plainly instructed and earnestly pressed to consider well that the main end of his life and studies is to know God and Jesus Christ which is eternal life, John 17:3, and therefore to lay Christ… as the only sound foundation of all knowledge and learning.”
Our second college was William & Mary. It was founded in 1693 as an Episcopalian or Anglican grounded institution. Yale, founded in 1701, stated as its primary goal that every student would consider the main end of his study knowing God and Jesus as the bottom line, and to lead a godly and sober life. Princeton was founded in 1746 as a new life Presbyterian school. Columbia, founded in 1754, was based upon Anglican beliefs and Brown, founded in 1765 was under the Baptist tradition. Dartmouth was founded in 1769 as a Congregational based school. I know these institutions have changed a lot since their founding, but we are talking about our roots, and educationally speaking, they were Christian. Our national songs also declare the same Christian beliefs. Just sing the songs “America The Beautiful,” “The Star Spangled Banner,” “Glory, Glory,” “Battle Hymn of the Republic,” “America, My Country, ‘tis of thee,” or recite our “Pledge Of Allegiance.” How can we deny such obvious proof?! Furthermore, our original pilgrims (the first English settlers to what we now consider the United States) were followed by the Puritans (those who wanted to reform the Church of England into more of a protestant or evangelical movement), which were very influential in the northern United States including New England, Connecticut, and Massachusetts (they were later known as Congregationalists). America has always trusted in God, just like it says on our money, from the colonies until either now (or recently), as a Bible-believing Christian Nation. That is a fact whether it is disputed or not.
The Importance Of Founders
Although many people do not believe “founders” are important to an organization (or nation), they may be more important than many of us think. As I said earlier I watched Steve Jobs launch the Macintosh back in 1983 to the employees of Apple Computer (in Hawaii). It had an impact similar to the one made when Apple introduced the personal computer (PC) to the world via the Apple II in 1977. And regardless of any controversy (many think the first personal computer was a computer called “Simon” defined in a 1949 book called “Giant Brains, or Machines That Think” or in other less sophisticated “desk top” computers), Steve Jobs and Steve Wosniac are the generally recognized founders of the PC industry, as we currently know it today. Moreover, IBM was not the founder since the IBM PC was not introduced until 1981 after the success of the Apple II. Reportedly, IBM didn’t even think there would ever be a need for a personal computer, at least as we currently understand the PC market to have evolved. But as Apple grew to be a multi-billion dollar company, Steve Jobs’ arrogance stepped on the toes of the people he had hired and ultimately he was fired by Apple’s Board of Directors and replaced by John Sculley.
Having been on staff at Apple, knowing some folks who worked directly for Steve Jobs, I heard the stories of his pushy arrogance. He was a tough boss and I am sure those stories were true. But, he was still its founder. Anyway, they fired him. And until they got him back, the company was headed down the drain financially. Despite what anyone might say about Steve Jobs, he was the visionary and brains behind Apple Computer and the Macintosh, iPod, iTunes, iPhone, iPad as well as their other products. Moreover, with Steve Jobs back at the helm Apple Computer has come to have a market value (the current stock price x’s outstanding shares) of about $272 billion compared to Microsoft’s $272 billion (as of this writing). The difference in market values of those two companies used to be near $200 billion (Apple being $200 billion below Microsoft), now it is about the same with Steve Jobs, Apple’s founder, running the company. Furthermore, this is not just an Apple Computer issue. You typically just don’t change the direction set by the founder without serious repercussions. Consider Microsoft and Bill Gates, CNN and Ted Turner, its not that they can or cannot leave (or that the organization will fail without them), but if their organizations deviate substantially from their roots, you might want to invest somewhere else. This is from an article written by Simon Sinek, for Forbes, called, “Why Great Companies Fail”,
“For those few founders who know how to build structure, their companies will not only survive; they will grow. But for a structure to continue to grow, that passionate crusade is still needed … and that is what leaves a company after its founder moves on. With success, a company’s leaders become obsessed with what the results should be and how to get there–strategy and tactics–and they forget why the company was founded in the first place. The original strategies were developed to advance the cause and the results measured the progress. When the cause is forgotten, strategies are developed only to advance the results. The vision and the crusade simply go fuzzy. It seems so closely tied to a charismatic leader because the founder often serves as the living symbol of the company’s cause. It is not the departure of the person that triggers the decline, per se; it is the failure to properly articulate that original cause, the inability to extract the ‘Why’ from the person and build it into the fabric of the company. What’s more, a successor should be there to advance the original cause and not try to redefine it. Attempting to change it only makes the matter worse.”
Maybe you think this sounds good for corporate America but not for “America” as a nation? Perhaps you are right, but I would have to respectfully disagree. I believe the principle is the same for our country as it is for the founding of any organization. Founders matter. Therefore, as an American, the Holy Bible is still the book I trust over all others because it was the book we were founded upon, and this war is clearly defined in the Bible. Furthermore, once we understand it, we can fight.
 Paul makes the same statement in 1 Thessalonians 2:3, “For the appeal we make does not spring from error or impure motives, nor are we trying to trick you.”
 Brief Biography of Thomas Jefferson, The Jefferson Monticello, Monticello.org.
 Wikipedia, The Jefferson Bible.
 Thomas Jefferson, Article by Thom Belote, Unitarian Universalist Historical Society, 1999-2009
 Memorial Edition of Jefferson’s Writings, Vol. 10, pg. 379, Volume 11, pg. 243.
 Christian Ethics Today, Thomas Jefferson on Race, Revolution, and Morality – History Revisited and Revised, Edwin S. Gaustad, Issue 10, Volume 7, No. 3, April, 1997.
 The Congressional Prayer Caucus – Prayer In Congress, http://www.house.gov/forbes/prayer/prayerincongress.htm
 beliefnet, Letter from Benjamin Frank Stiles, March 9, 1790.
 All About History, Life of George Washington – A Leader of Character. http://www.allabouthistory.org/life-of-george-washington.htm.
 The George Washington Society, Why Have Scholars Underplayed George Washington’s Faith? By Peter A. Lillback
 In God We Still Trust, pg. 43.
 Wikipedia.org, John Adams.
 Founding.com, Letter to Abigail Adams, July 3, 1776. Copyright © 2002-2009 The Claremont Institute.
 The Works of John Adams (1854), vol III, p 421, diary entry for July 26, 1796.
 Wikipedia, John Jay.
 Jay, William (1833). The Life of John Jay: With Selections from His Correspondence and Miscellaneous Papers. J. & J. Harper. pp. 376. Retrieved 2008-08-22.
 Letter of Madison to William Bradford (September 25, 1773), in 1 James Madison, The Papers of James Madison 66 (William T. Hutchinson ed., Illinois: University of Chicago Press 1962).
 Wikipedia, Alexander Hamilton.
History of the Republic of the United States, as Traced in the Writings of Alexander Hamilton and His Contemporaries, by J. C. Hamilton, volume 7, page 790
 Wikipedia, John Hancock.
 http://www.ushistory.org/declaration/signers/hancock.htm, Signers of the Declaration of Independence, John Hancock, 1737-1793.
 Seth Kaller, Inc., John Hancock’s Signed Psalm and Hymn Book, www.colonialhall.com/hancock.
 Great American History, Lincoln’s Faith In God, Gordon Leidner
 CNS News.com, Obama’s National Day of Prayer Proclamation Mentions God Only Once, by Penny Starr, May 7, 2009.
 Wikipedia, Church of the Holy Trinity v. United States.
13 In God We Still Trust, Dr. Richard G. Lee, (Thomas Nelson, Inc., Nashville, TN, 2009), pg. 11.
 We Are a Christian Nation (WAACN), Christian Quotes by Well-Known Americans, Proclamations, February 3, 1983. Proclamation 5018.
 American Christian Heritage, http://acheritagegroup.org/blog/?p=29.
 History of America’s Education Part 3: Universities, Textbooks and Our Founders, April Shenandoah, April 4, 2002.
 Nurturing Faith, One Short generation: CSI history – part 1, October 25, 2010.
 American Educational History: A Hypertext Timeline, http://www.cloudnet.com/~edrbsass/educationhistorytimeline.html
 Giant Brains Or Machines That Think, Edmund Callis Berkely, Consultant in Modern Technology, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1949. See also http://www.ideafinder.com/history/inventions/compersonal.htm.
 http://techcrunch.com/2010/05/26/apple-microsoft-market-cap-2/, May 26, 2010.
 Why Great Companies Fail, Simon Sinek, for Forbes, (February 11, 2010),